The Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942

Operation Jubilee or the Dieppe Raid (19 August 1942) was an Allied amphibious attack on the German-occupied port of Dieppe in northern France, during the Second World War. Over 6,050 infantry, predominantly Canadian, supported by a regiment of tanks, were put ashore from a naval force operating under protection of Royal Air Force (RAF) fighters.

The port was to be captured and held for a short period, to test the feasibility of a landing and to gather intelligence. German coastal defences, port structures and important buildings were to be demolished. The raid was intended to boost Allied morale, demonstrate the commitment of the United Kingdom to re-open the Western Front and support the Soviet Union, fighting on the Eastern Front.

Aerial and naval support was insufficient to enable the ground forces to achieve their objectives; the tanks were trapped on the beach and the infantry was largely prevented from entering the town by obstacles and German fire. After less than six hours, mounting casualties forced a retreat. The operation was a fiasco in which only one landing force achieved its objective and some intelligence including electronic intelligence was gathered.

Within ten hours, of the 6,086 men who landed, 3,623 had been killed, wounded or became prisoners of war. The Luftwaffe made a maximum effort against the landing as the RAF had expected, but the RAF lost 106 aircraft (at least 32 to anti-aircraft fire or accidents) against 48 German losses. The Royal Navy lost 33 landing craft and a destroyer.

Certain lessons were learned that influenced the success of the D-Day landings. Artificial harbours were declared crucial, tanks were adapted specifically for beaches, a new integrated tactical air force strengthened ground support, and capturing a major port at the outset was no longer seen as a priority. Churchill and Mountbatten both claimed that these lessons had outweighed the cost. (Text via Wikipedia)

Canadian infantrymen disembarking from a landing craft during a training exercise before Operation JUBILEE, the raid on Dieppe, France. England, August 1942.
Brigadier W. Basil Wedd of Headquarters, 1st Canadian Army, placing a wreath on the graves of Canadian soldiers killed at Dieppe on 19 August 1942. Ambleteuse, France, 23 September 1944.
British commandos who took part in Operation JUBILEE, the raid on Dieppe, returning to England, 19 August 1942.
The carnage of the Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942
The aftermath of the Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942
German soldiers inspect “Bert”, a knocked-out Canadian Churchill tank at Dieppe, August 1942
German soldiers walk past “Bert”, a knocked-out Canadian Churchill tank at Dieppe, August 1942
German soldiers examine Churchill tanks abandoned by Allied soldiers as they were evacuated.19 August 1942
Churchill Tanks and landing craft burning on the beach after the Allied raid on Dieppe. 19 August 1942.
Burnt out tanks and landing craft lie strewn across the beach at Dieppe after the Allied withdrawal. Of the 24 landing craft which took part, 10 managed to land a total of 24 tanks, all of which were lost.
Damaged Churchill tanks of the Calgary Regiment on the main beach at Dieppe. 19 August 1942
German troops examining “Churchill” tank of the Calgary Regiment abandoned during the raid on Dieppe. 19 August 1942
Knocked out “Churchill” tanks and the bodies of Canadian soldiers on the beach of Dieppe. France, August 1942
A Churchill Mark I of the Calgary Regiment’s “C” Squadron Headquarters knocked out at Dieppe. 19 August 1942
A Churchill Mark I of the Calgary Regiment’s “B” Squadron Headquarters knocked out at Dieppe. 19 August 1942
A knocked out Churchill Mark II of Regimental Headquarters, The Calgary Regiment at Dieppe. August 1942
A Churchill Mark III of 10 Troop “B” Squadron, The Calgary Regiment, on the beach at Dieppe. 19 Aug 1942
A Churchill Mark III of 10 Troop “B” Squadron, The Calgary Regiment, immobilized on the beach at Dieppe.19 Aug 1942
A Churchill Mark III of 6 Troop “B” Squadron, The Calgary Regiment, immobilized with her left track broken by enemy fire on the Promenade at Dieppe.
“The Dieppe Raid” by Charles Comfort
Canadian POWs Being Marched Into Captivity
Canadian POWs At The Dieppe Hospital
After the Battle
The beach after the battle.
Canadian dead on Blue beach at Puys. Trapped between the beach and high sea wall (fortified with barbed wire), they made easy enfilade targets for MG34 machine guns in a German bunker. The bunker firing slit is visible in the distance, just above the German soldier’s head.
No.3 Commando returning to Newhaven after the Dieppe Raid, August 1942
Dieppe’s chert beach and cliff immediately following the raid on 19 August 1942. A Dingo Scout Car has been abandoned.
A German MG34 medium machine gun emplacement. Dieppe, France. August 1942.
Destroyed landing craft on fire with Canadian dead on the beach. A concrete gun emplacement on the right covers the whole beach. The steep gradient can clearly be judged.
Canadian wounded and abandoned Churchill tanks after the raid. A landing craft is on fire in the background.
Daimler Dingo armoured car and two Churchill tanks bogged down on the shingle beach. The nearest Churchill tank has a flame thrower mounted in the hull, and the rear tank has lost a track. Both have attachments to heighten their exhausts for wading through the surf.
Canadian dead at Dieppe, August 1942
Canadian prisoners being led away through Dieppe after the raid.
British and Canadian prisoners at Dieppe, August 1942
Canadian and British dead at Dieppe, August 1942
German soldiers examine a Canadian Churchill tank at Dieppe
A member of the German Navy poses with a Canadian machete next to a disabled Allied Churchill tank on the beaches of Dieppe after the Dieppe Raid.
Map of Dieppe Raid with photographic details
German officers on the beach with fallen Canadian soldiers after the Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942
German soldiers attempting to salvage destroyed Canadian tank. August 1942.
Canadian POW drinking from his helmet after the Dieppe Raid. 19 August 1942
An aerial photograph of Dieppe during the landings showing a substantial fire burning on the front
Awaiting transhipment to prisoner of war camps after the Dieppe raid. 19 August 1942
Awaiting transhipment to prisoner of war camps after the Dieppe raid. 19 August 1942
Captured soldiers being marched through Dieppe. 19 August 1942
The beach at Dieppe after the raid. 19 August 1942
German personnel surveying an abandoned Allied tank. 19 August 1942
An Allied soldier after the Dieppe Raid. August 1942.
The beach the day after the Dieppe Raid. 20 August 1942
Germans guarding the Canadian prisoners after the Battle of Dieppe. August 1942
At Pourville, outside Dieppe, wounded Canadians lie at the side of the road as the battle continues in the background. 19 August 1942
Exhausted Canadian soldiers await transport under the watchful eye of their German captors after the battle of Dieppe. Aug 1942
A Dornier Do 217 being downed by a Supermarine Spitfire Mark VB flown by Flight Lieutenant Kazimierz Rutkowski of No. 317 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Dieppe Raid.
The aftermath of the Dieppe Raid. 19 August 1942
The aftermath of the Dieppe Raid. 19 August 1942
Damaged Churchill tanks of the Calgary Regiment on the main beach at Dieppe. 19 August 1942
Canadians taken prisoner after surrender at Dieppe. 19 August 1942.
Evacuation of wounded.
Allied troops arriving back in England after the Dieppe Raid.
Weary soldiers back in England after the Dieppe Raid.
Captain Jock Anderson of the Royal Regiment of Canada, cup of tea in hand, recounts his experiences to Brigadier Tees after disembarking at Portsmouth.
A wounded Canadian soldier being disembarked from a Polish destroyer at Portsmouth on return from Dieppe, 19 August 1942.
Three Canadian soldiers gather around their supplies in the shelter of the sea wall at Dieppe.19 August 1942
Canadian troops resting on board a destroyer after the raid on Dieppe. The strain of the operation can be seen on their faces.
Three Canadian soldiers gather around their supplies in the shelter of the sea wall at Dieppe.19 August 1942
Roman Wozniak was a Spitfire pilot with 403 Squadron, RCAF charged with covering the Canadian troops at Dieppe on 19 August 1942. There were four Canadian Spitfire squadrons that day, with each squadron spending an hour over the boats before rotating out.
“We protected them and we did a very good job, but the boats sent up smoke to 3,000 feet – the sweet spot for flying. The smoke made them vulnerable to attack, so they dropped to 2,000 feet.
“We broke up into twos. That worked very well because if the Germans popped through the smoke and jumped one group of two, another two would jump them. So as a squadron we had a successful day. We got six German fighters and only lost three.
“One of those that we lost was my roommate. We’d been together for about a year flying in combat. We were almost like brothers.”
The friend was Ed Gardiner, son of Jimmy Gardiner, the minister of agriculture in William Lyon Mackenzie King’s government.
Image left: taken in 2012 Right: Wozniak holding ‘Lucy’ the squadron mascot.
On 19 August 1942 Honorary Captain Foote was attached to the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (RHLI), one of the battalions from the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division that participated in the raid on the French port of Dieppe on that day. After landing, Padre Foote assisted the RHLI’s medical officer in caring for the wounded at the regimental aid post. However, he frequently left the relative safety of that location for the open beach where he rendered first aid, and gave injections of morphine to alleviate the suffering of the many wounded who were there. Later, he carried wounded men from the regimental aid post to landing craft waiting to evacuate the survivors of the raiding force. Padre Foote declined the opportunity to embark, preferring to continue to minister to those left behind, and to share their fate as prisoners of war. Reverend John Weir Foote was awarded a Victoria Cross for his efforts during the Dieppe Raid.

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