33 Amazing Photos of Native Americans in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, sometimes including Hawaii and territories of the United States and sometimes limited to the mainland.

There are 574 federally recognized tribes living within the US. “Native Americans” (as defined by the United States Census) are Indigenous tribes that are originally from the continental United States, plus Alaska Natives.

The population of California Indians was reduced by 90% during the 19th century—from more than 200,000 in the early 19th century to approximately 15,000 at the end of the century, mostly due to disease. Epidemics swept through California Indian Country, such as the 1833 malaria epidemic.

During the California Gold Rush, many natives also were killed by incoming settlers as well as by militia units financed and organized by the California government.

Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans.

Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations: California, Arizona and Oklahoma have the largest populations of Native Americans in the United States. Most Native Americans live in small-town or rural areas.

“Curley” a Crow Indian Scout for General Custer
Apache warrior seating and holding a sheathed bow and arrow quiver
Bear Shield
Chief American Horse
Chief Brave Bear
Chief Crazy Horse
Chief Red Whip
Chief Running Bird
Chief White Horse
Frank Hup and son
Iron White Man
Joseph and Susie Good
Judge Bird Head and wife
Little Chief
Long Bull
Lovely Enohet woman
Mountain Chief
Mrs. James Cedar
Mrs. Locke
Pawnee couple, Genoa, Nebraska
Pawnee tribesman, Genoa, Nebraska
Pawnee woman, Genoa, Nebraska
Sioux Indian
Two Strikes, Chief of Sioux Nation, Wounded Knee, SD
Unknown Native American Indian with ornate headdress
Unknown Native American Indian with ornate headdress
Woman in traditional dress
Wounded Bear, Wounded Knee, SD
Young American Indian mother and her baby
Young Chiricahua Apache woman in native dress
Young Kiowa woman in native dress
Young Native American man with a rifle standing next to a seated Caucasian man wearing a hat
Young Native American woman

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