During the Spring of Nations (a series of revolutions which swept across Europe), Poles took up arms in the Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 to resist Prussian rule. The uprising was suppressed and the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen, created from the Prussian partition of Poland, was incorporated into Prussia.
In 1863, a new Polish uprising against Russian rule began but failed to win any major military victories. Afterwards no major uprising was witnessed in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland, and Poles resorted instead to fostering economic and cultural self-improvement. Congress Poland was rapidly industrialized towards the end of the 19th century, and successively transformed into the Empire’s wealthiest and most developed subject.
Despite the political unrest experienced during the partitions, Poland did benefit from large-scale industrialization and modernization programs, instituted by the occupying powers, which helped it develop into a more economically coherent and viable entity.
Here below is a set of amazing photos from Faces from the past that shows portraits of Polish men from between the 1870s and 1890.